Easy ways to remember which topmark is which

North and South Cardinals are easy to decipher -imagine the points

of the topmark point to the relevant edge of a chart – up for north and

down for south.

You can turn a West cardinal on its side and draw a ‘w’ around its edges. Alternatively, imagine it looks like a narrow waisted woman or wineglass.

You can draw an E around an east cardinal’s topmark – and it looks a bit like an egg!

Everyone has their own way of remembering it. What are yours?